Monday, November 7, 2011

PICA?!


Chewing a pencil in class? We’ve all done it!
However, chewing and swallowing? Now that’s a different story!
You say it’s impossible for someone to eat a pencil, a paper, a light bulb, etc.
I say it happens all the time!
… And it is called Pica!

What?

Pica is an eating disorder typically defined as the persistent ingestion of nonnutritive substances, for a period of at least 1 month, at an age when such behavior is developmentally inappropriate. Ok! Let’s make it simpler. When you were 1 or 2 years old, you used to chew on anything. And even though you don’t remember, that was a perfectly normal behavior. However, being 31 and eating the foam inside your couch cushions is not really ok! (pic)
Pica eaters ingest a wide variety of nonnutritive substances. We are talking about dirt, sand, stones, hair, feces, lead, paper, burnt matches, chalk, wood, plaster, light bulbs, and the list goes on…

Who?

Pica is very common in children, individuals with developmental disabilities and in pregnant women. It may also occur exclusively during the course of another mental disorder such as schizophrenia.

Why?

Why would anyone do such a thing? Well, there could many reasons…

Nutritional deficiencies: Some researchers suggest that nutritional deficiencies in iron, calcium, zinc and other nutrients have been associated with pica. So basically, the theory suggests that pica eaters ingest those nonnutritive substances to provide themselves with those nutrients. However, these findings are not supported by studies. So we’re still facing the dilemma of whether the deficiency came first or whether the ingestion of those foods caused it.

Cultural and familial factors: In some social groups, the ingestion of clay or soil is perfectly normal. Some parents may teach their children to eat those substances. Clay eating and starch eating is seen in some southern, rural, African American communities, primarily among women and children. Starch eating, is frequently started in pregnancy as a treatment for morning sickness.

Stress: Any stress that affects a child’s life may result in pica. What we mean by stress is parent separation, parent neglect, abuse, etc…

Low socioeconomic status: Malnutrition and hunger may result in pica.

Non discriminating oral behavior: As we said before, individuals with developmental disabilities may suffer from pica. This is due to an inability to discriminate between food and nonfood items. Some findings also suggest that there often is an aggressive search for nonfood items.

Then?

So what if I ate all those things? Well, the body is not made to either ingest or digest some products. Besides, there are substances that may be harmful and potentially kill the person ingesting them.

Lead Poisoning: Lead can be found in paint, soil, children’s toys, etc. It is a poisonous metal. A long term exposure to it can damage almost every organ in the body. It can ultimately cause death in children and miscarriage in pregnant women.

Hyperkalemia: It is the elevation of potassium in the blood. Due to ingestion of burnt match heads, it can cause the impairment of neuromuscular, gastrointestinal and cardiac organ systems.

Soil-borne parasitic infections such as toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis: It is due to geophagia (soil or clay ingestion) and it can be fatal specifically to people with a weakened immune system such as AIDS patients or pregnant women.

Gastrointestinal tract complications: the ingestion of non-food products can be very damaging to the GI tract. It can cause mechanical bowel problems, constipation, ulcerations, perforations, intestinal obstructions. The last three can be fatal as they can cause internal hemorrhages (bleeding).

Nutritional effects: data suggests that the ingested material displace normal dietary intake or interfere with the absorption of necessary nutritional substances causing deficiencies, especially in iron and zinc.

Dental effects: Pica results in severe tooth abrasion and surface tooth loss.


How?

Effective treatment should involve:

A psychologist that will analyze the function of pica behavior and ask all the right questions. He will attempt a behavioral modification such as discrimination training between edible and non edible items and other.

A social worker to assess the familial situation of the patient, educate regarding the negative effects of pica and remove toxic substances from the environment.

A physician to deal with the treatment of the consequences of the disorder.

A dietitian to address any identified nutritional deficiencies.

A dentist that will fix any damages to the teeth.

There is no specific medical treatment for patients with pica.


Pica can remit spontaneously in young children and pregnant women. However, if left untreated, it can persist for years. So if you suspect any behavior of this sort in a family member, friend or neighbor, please help them get treated!

13 comments:

cheap replica watches said...

You also need to pay awareness of the bezel. Divers have to be able to see how much time they have been under the water, so it is important that the diving watches have a unidirectional elapsed timing bezel. A clear face on divers watches is important also. The clear face allows you to quickly glance at the face of the watch and see your time. If you cannot quickly fake Bell & Ross watches look at your time, you may overstay in the replica Mont Blanc watches bottom. You will replica Rado watches want to pay awareness of the durability of the dive fake Richard Mille watches watches. Another thing to replica Tag Heuer watches UK pay attention to is the accuracy. You will also want to take the strength of the divers watches into consideration.

mao qiuyun said...

chicago bulls jersey, http://www.chicagobullsjerseys.net/
new balance shoes, http://www.newbalanceshoes.in.net/
dansko outlet, http://www.dansko-shoes.us/
true religion outlet, http://www.truereligionoutletstore.us.com/
christian louboutin, http://www.scarpelouboutin.it/
michael kors outlet, http://www.michaelkorsoutlet.org.uk/
juicy couture outlet, http://www.juicycoutureoutlet.net/
air max 2015, http://www.airmax2015.com/
longchamp handbags, http://www.longchamphandbag.us.com/
49ers jersey, http://www.sanfrancisco49ersjerseys.us/
michael kors factory outlet, http://www.michaelkorsfactoryoutletonline.com/
los angeles lakers, http://www.lakersjerseys.us/
mac cosmetics, http://www.maccosmetics.in.net/
ugg uk, http://www.cheapuggboots.me.uk/
tiffany and co, http://www.tiffanyandco.in.net/
north face outlet, http://www.thenorthfaceclearances.us.com/
air jordan 4 free shipping, http://www.airjordan4.org/
christian louboutin shoes, http://www.christianlouboutinoutlet.org.uk/
roshe run men, http://www.rosherunshoessale.com/
abercrombie and fitch, http://www.abercrombie-fitch.us.com/
chiefs jersey, http://www.kansascitychiefs.us/
mbt shoes outlet, http://www.mbtshoesoutlet.us.com/
ferragamo shoes, http://www.ferragamo.eu.com/
beats by dr dre, http://www.beatsbydrdre-headphones.us.com/
rolex watches, http://www.rolexwatches-uk.co.uk/
nike air max uk, http://www.nikeairmaxshoes.org.uk/
yoga pants, http://www.yogapants.us.com/
michael kors outlet, http://michaelkors.outletonlinestores.us.com/
oakley sunglasses, http://www.oakleysunglasses-outlet.us.com/
michael kors uk outlet, http://www.michaelkorsoutlet.org.uk/
0912maoqiuyun

Minko Chen said...

nike outlet store
chanel outlet
lululemon pants
nike free uk
pandora outlet
chicago bears
cheap uggs
cheap jordans
celine outlet
ralph lauren outlet
michael kors outlet online
michael kors outlet online
salomon shoes
michael kors outlet
toms outlet store
asics,asics israel,asics shoes,asics running shoes,asics israel,asics gel,asics running,asics gel nimbus,asics gel kayano
uggs outlet
kobe bryants shoes
swarovski crystal
michael kors outlet online
1112MINKO

dongdong said...

michael kors outlet clearance
sac longchamp
levis 511
ralph lauren outlet
fitflops clearance
michael kors handbags
coach outlet
burberry outlet
coach factory outlet
toms outlet
kate spade outlet
ralph lauren uk
coach outlet store online
nike huarache
coach outlet clearance
fitflops shoes
asics shoes
reebok shoes
oakley sunglasses wholesale
instyler max
kate spade outlet
levis jeans
michael kors purses
christian louboutin uk
ralph lauren
jimmy choo outlet
lululemon sale
adidas shoes uk
true religion jeans
coach factory outlet
jordans shoes
calvin klein outlet
prada handbags
supra for sale
cartier watches
toms outlet store
air force 1
jordan pas cher
pandora jewelry
20163.18wengdongdong

Chenzhen 20160303chenzhen said...

michael kors outlet online
polo ralph lauren outlet
louis vuitton handbags
coach factorty outlet
nike huarache white
ed hardy outlet
nfl jerseys
ugg boots outlet
louis vuitton outlet
asics shoes for women
louis vuitton bags
adidas wings
gucci handbags
ugg on sale
louis vuitton outlet stores
louis vuitton outlet
fitflop clearance
michael kors outlet online
jordan retro 13
michael kors bags
louis vuitton bags
coach factory outlet
ray ban outlet
michael kors outlet online
louis vuitton handbags
coach outlet online
coach outlet
cheap toms
michael kors outlet online
mont blanc mountain
louis vuitton handbags
michael kors handbags
ugg outlet
kobe 8
retro jordans 13
hollister clothing store
michael kors outlet
kate spade outlet
oakley vault
michael kors outlet
20160318chenzhen

dong dong23 said...

louboutin pas cher
fitflop sandals
adidas outlet store
michael kors purses
nike uk
cheap oakley sunglasses
cheap jordans
jordan 4
coach outlet store online
coach factory outlet
michael kors outlet clearance
air jordan pas cher
true religion jeans
rolex watches
longchamp outlet
kate spade handbags
louis vuitton outlet stores
hollister clothing
fitflops
christian louboutin flats
louis vuitton outlet
coach outlet
ray ban sunglasses
polo ralph lauren outlet
michael kors outlet
cheap oakley sunglasses
louis vuitton outlet
kobe bryant shoes
adidas uk
ray ban sunglasses outlet
cheap oakley sunglasses
rolex submariner
giuseppe zanotti
polo ralph lauren
louis vuitton outlet
kate spade
nike air force
basketball shoes
louis vuitton outlet
supra shoes
20167.16wengdongdong

xumeiqing said...

20160921meiqing
rolex watches
lebron james shoes
ugg outlet
nmd adidas
louboutin shoes
louis vuitton outlet
vans outlet store
cheap jordans
coach factory outlet
canada goose jackets

raybanoutlet001 said...

michael kors handbags outletthe
michael kors handbagsand
ray ban sunglassesthese
nike free 5Five
nike huarachesheet}
mont blanc pens outletaround
michael kors handbags outletthis
dolce and gabbana shoeseasy
chaussure louboutin pas cherto
ray ban sunglassesand

chenlina said...

cheap uggs
coach factory outlet
ray ban sunglasses uk
fitflops
celine handbags
michael kors outlet
ugg uk
ugg boots
adidas superstar
gucci outlet
chenlina20161118

Unknown said...

saints jerseys
adidas nmd
ecco shoes outlet
lebron shoes
ray bans
san francisco 49ers jerseys
michael kors handbags wholesale
oakland raiders jerseys
supra shoes sale
gucci outlet

chenlina said...

washington wizards jerseys
cheap jordans
michael kors handbags
coach outlet
louis vuitton handbags
ray ban canada
michael kors outlet
adidas originals
oakley sunglasses outlet
chanel outlet
chenlina20170220

LCc 03 said...

nike air zoom
pandora outlet
louboutin shoes
lacoste outlet
timberland shoes
ultra boost
yeezy boost 350
roshe shoes
hermes belt
yeezy boost 350 v2

Unknown said...

fitflops sale clearance
vikings jerseys
michael kors handbags wholesale
boston celtics jersey
michael kors handbags outlet
coach outlet
chiefs jersey
basketball shoes
ray ban sunglasses
cheap uggs

Post a Comment